- Macro Effects of Biofuel (Agrofuel) in Indonesia
The basic framework in identifying macro effect of agrofuel production applies in this research is to use the Cramer Sustainability Criteria and impact category scenario by the OECD. Directed questions used for the survey on the identification of macro effect of agrofuel production are based on standards established by Standard Cramer. The OECD impact category scenario is used as reference to support the team’s comprehension with regard to policy target and factors which impact policy implementation at macro level regarding biofuel/agrofuel development.
The framework for measuring macro effect of utilisation and development or agrofuel production is difficult to be established at individual company and it can only be detected at macro regional, national and sometime in international level. According to Cramer Standard at macro level the aspect of effects that become serious concern is the changes caused by indirect changes in land uses among other are a) land price, b) food price, c) ownership of land, d) food availability, e) relocation of food production and cattle breeding, f) deforestation and loss of nature reserves in relation to the supply of food, construction materials, fertilisers, medicines, etc., and g) changes in the type of vegetation and share of vegetation and crops.[i]